Success Stories

Linerless Liquid Oxygen (LOX) tank for small-sat space launcher

Adamant Composites and HyImpulse have co-developed and tested a series of linerless CFRP Liquid Oxygen (LOX) compatible tanks for small space launch vehicles. Made using Toray thermoset uni-directional prepregs, the tanks achieve major mass and cost savings compared to aluminum tanks, further enabling affordable access to space for the European market. The tank has recently undergone successful testing, validating proof of concept ahead of industrialized, automated manufacture.

  • Ø 600mm tank achieves 30% mass savings v’s aluminum tank
  • Full-scale Ø 2 meter tank will also achieve a reduction in cycle time by 50% and cost by 25% through automated robotic layup (AFP)

Composite materials for linerless tanks

A cryogenic tank presents a unique challenge for composite materials. The composite must retain its integrity during the sudden thermal contraction associated with fast filling with propellant at cryogenic temperatures

of -180°C [-292°F]. Toray’s epoxy-based carbon fiber composite materials were selected for this program due to their mechanical properties and processability, producing zero voids both out of autoclave and vacuum bag only.

It is imperative that the composite has a resin system that retains toughness at very low temperatures coupled with low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Further, the composite must be of very high quality, without pockets or resin-rich areas, which would be prone to crack.

This is achieved using slit tape technology with prepreg produced by Toray Advanced Composites with tight tolerances on percentage resin content by weight and fiber areal weight of the prepreg. Slit tape offers a more consistent product with a broader choice of areal weights and resin systems than filament winding or most towpreg technologies, enabling the highest possible quality of composite part.

Proof of concept validated

The Ø 600mm demonstrator, which will fly on the HyImpulse SR-75 sounding rocket, successfully validated proof of concept of the design and manufacturing of a linerless CFRP tank for small space launchers. Tests conducted include:

  • Hydraulic proof pressure
  • Cryogenic proof pressure
  • Cryo-cycling
  • Cryogenic burst
  • Impact
  • Flight load bending (including structure interface)

This milestone enabled the further development of a full-scale Ø 2-meter tank, which will be used for the first orbital launch in HyImpulse’s Small Launcher (SL1), scheduled to launch in 2025.

The 2-meter tank recently passed hydrostatic testing, demonstrating its ability to withstand pressures well beyond the limits of its intended use. This is a major achievement for the teams at HyImpulse and Adamant Composites, as the use of linerless CFRP tanks in space applications is relatively new in Europe and has not been extensively tested.

HyImpulse Launcher – Green and Affordable Access to Space

HyImpulse’s launch vehicles are powered by unique and proprietary green hybrid propulsion (liquid oxygen and paraffin) systems, and with their SL1 vehicle, aims to be the first orbital launch vehicle in the world to reach orbit with a hybrid propulsion system. The hybrid propulsion allows safe and flexible operation of the launch service.

Their first commercial product and technology demonstrator, SR 75, is designed to deliver institutional and commercial experiments into a microgravity environment during a suborbital flight with a payload capacity of 350 kg to 200 km. The maiden launch is planned for 2023.

HyImpulses’ Small Launcher 1 (SL1), scheduled to launch in 2025, has a payload capacity of 400 kg to 500 km SSO /675 kg to Low Earth Orbit (LEO), enabling cost-effective access to space for the European market.

About HyImpulse Technologies GmbH

HyImpulse is a launch services provider based in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Founded with the goal to revolutionize access to space, HyImpulse’s Small Launcher, SL1, is powered by unique and proprietary hybrid propulsion systems. This disruptive technology enables HyImpulse to offer affordable, frequent, responsive, and safe access to space for small satellites and spacecrafts with a lower carbon footprint.

For more information about HyImpulse Technologies and its products, please visit   


About Adamant Composites

ADAMANT COMPOSITES develops cutting-edge solutions for the markets of Aerospace, Defence and Energy. We help our partners push the limits of their application leveraging our expertise in the composite structures design and manufacturing and the engineering of nano-enabled materials. We work on challenging applications including batteries, composite storage tanks, UAVs airframes, structures, deployables, and ground support equipment for satellites and launchers, and others. Our track record includes successful collaborations with renowned clients such as the European Space Agency, Airbus, and other institutional and industrial partners. Celebrating our 10-year anniversary, we are proud to support Space Missions for Science, Earth Observation and NewSpace.

For more information about Adamant Composites and its products, please visit or contact us at 

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